Robinson Township, the eleventh in the original thirteen townships, formed by the trustees appointed under the act erecting the county of Washington. It began its legal existence on or about the 15th of July 1781. The township comprised in the original township of Robinson was bounded as follows:
"Beginning at the headwaters of the North Fork of Raccoon Creek; thence up the creek to the mouth of the Ohio River to the mouth of the Chartiers Creek; thence up the creek to the mouth of Robinson's Run; thence up the Main branch thereof to the head-waters; from then in a straight line to the Head-waters of the North Fork of Raccoon Creek, the place of beginning."
The erection of Allegheny County in 1788 cut off that portion of the township from the mouth of Flaherty's Run on the Ohio to the mouth of Miller's Run on Chartiers Creek, then in Cecil Township. In 1786, when Allegheny County was enlarged by territory from Washington County, this township was again reduced, and with slight change in 1836 was brought to its present territory. The township as it now exists is bounded on the west by Hanover; on the northeast by Allegheny County; and on the southeast, south, and southwest by the townships of Cecil, Mount Pleasant, and Smith. The boundary between Robinson and the last-mentioned three townships is Raccoon Creek; and this stream and Robinson Run which is the principal southeastern boundary of the township are its principal waters. In 1889 and 1903 it was further reduced in size by the incorporation of McDonald and Midway Boroughs.
One of the first settlers in Robinson Township was Capt. Samuel Beelor, who built a two-story log fort near the present village of Candor in 1774. This place was used frequently as a refuge for the settlers of that region during Indian raids. The following are some of the other early settlers in that region: James Clark, Robert Shearer, Sr., Hugh Shearer, William McCandless, Mathew Bailey, Thomas Bigger, Josia Scott, William Aten, Samuel Pollock, John Donaldson, Peter, Alexander and William Kidd, John Witherspoon, James McBride, Alexander Bailey, Christopher Smith, James McBurney and John McDonald.
The first churches were Raccoon Presbyterian and Robinson United Presbyterian.
The first schoolhouse was built on the Richard Donaldson farm about 1800 and was taught by John Elliott. Thomas Crawford and William Gear taught in a school on the Morland farm from 1810 to 1813. In 1926 there were eleven teachers. One supervising principal and the following seven schools: Robinson, Donaldson, Candor, Geary, McAdam, Dickson, and Taylor Run. The present school system, Fort Cherry Joint School, consists of McDonald, Robinson, Midway, and Hickory Elementary and a combined junior and senior high school.